Appetizer 32 / PRONUNCIATION OF YEARS / Day 1 of 1
GENERAL AIMS
 To introduce how to pronounce years correctly
 To point out the areas of difficulty when saying particular years and demonstrate how to interpret those confusing areas
 To increase the students’ confidence in their use of saying the years aloud in their normal speaking
STEP SUMMARY
A 
Intro to pronunciation 
Years with & without zeros 

B 
Practice 
Pairwork 
RECOMMENDED LEVELS
Beginner to intermediate
ACTIVITY TIME
15+ minutes
MATERIALS
 Board, screen or flip chart
 Handouts for class:
HO3 clarifying worksheet
HO4 speaking practice
Quickpage
Class Plan
PART A: INTRODUCTION TO YEARS
Sometimes the students take more interest in an activity if you demonstrate the need for them to learn more about that area. By doing some preliminary testing, you can also determine in general terms how much time and focus may be appropriate to dedicate to the current group you are teaching.
A  STEP 1  CHECK / SHOW THE NEED INTRODUCTION YEARS  
a)  Write on the board the following years and ask the class as a whole or randomly ask different students to pronounce one year each: 1656 1660 2000 1606 1600  
b)  o (optional): You can correct each pronunciation as it occurs or is necessary, or you can simply make your point that there are some unclear areas and you will now show them how to approach pronouncing different years well.  
c)  Point out that for the most part, the confusion arises when a zero is in the year. 
A  STEP 2  TYPICAL APPROACH INTRODUCTION YEARS  
a)  Write on the board the following years and ask class how to pronounce them: 1755 1843 1867 1882 1961  
b)  Elicit / explain that the spoken form of most years is to say it in groups of 2 pairs: seventeen fiftyfive eighteen fortythree eighteen sixtyseven eighteen eightytwo nineteen sixtyone 

c)  Have the students repeat the years again with this in mind (one year = two pairs of numbers). 
YEARS INTRODUCTION (Steps 1 & 2) APPAUD 16
Students can listen to and repeat the years
1656 1660 2000 1606 1600
1755 1843 1867 1882 1961
A  STEP 3  ROW 1 on HO 3 LESS THAN 1000 YEARS  
a)  Give the students HO 3 (handout 3 as shown above)  
b)  Have one student say the first two years in Row 1 (50 and 100).  
c)  Elicit or explain that years less than 1000 are pronounced the same as a number.  
d)  Have the student continue saying the rest of the years in that row. 
A  STEP 4  ROW 2 on HO 3 HUNDREDS YEARS  
a)  Ask a different student to pronounce the first two years in Row 2 (1100 and 1200).  
b)  Elicit or explain that the first pair is pronounced together in the usual way, but the double zero is always pronounced as hundred. (eleven hundred, twelve hundred)  
c)  Have the student continue saying the rest of the years in that row.  
d)  Have the class as a whole say that same second row. 
A  STEP 5  ROW 3 on HO 3 ZERO IN TENS COLUMN YEARS  
a)  Show that one can look at the construction of the year number by referring to the digit columns. For the year 1234 the ‘4’ is in the ‘units’ column, the ‘3’ is in the ‘tens’ column, the ‘2’ is in the ‘hundreds’ column and the ‘1’ is in the ‘thousands’ column.  thousands  hundreds  tens  units  
________  ________  ________  ________  
1  2  3  4  
b)  Remind the students that if there are two zeros at the end of the year, one is in the ‘units’ column and another in the ‘tens’ column, then that section of two zeros is pronounced ‘hundred’ as in 1500 or 1800.  
c)  If there is a zero in the tens column only, it is pronounced “oh”. The first two years in the third row are pronounced thirteen oh one (1301) and fifteen oh four (1504). Notice the first pair of numbers in the year are pronounced the same as always (thirteen and fifteen).  
d)  Have a different student pronounce all the years in Row 3.  
e)  Have the class repeat the same row. 
A  STEP 6  ROW 4 on HO 3 ZERO IN UNITS COLUMN YEARS  
a)  Tell the class that if there is a zero in the units column, it is pronounced like any regular year without a zero: two pairs of numbers. For example: 1940 and 1944 (nineteen forty and nineteen fortyfour)  
b)  Have the class repeat the years in the fourth row. 
A  STEP 7  ROW 5 on HO 3 ZERO IN HUNDREDS COLUMN YEARS  
a)  Explain that if there is a zero in the hundreds column, it also is to be said like any regular year without a zero. For example: 1033 (ten thirtythree) 2019 (twenty nineteen) 2020 (twenty twenty)  
b)  Have the class say the years in the fifth row. 
A  STEP 8  ROW 6 on HO 3 3 ZEROS or 2 ZEROS IN CENTER YEARS  
a)  Write 1000 on the board and ask the students to pronounce it. (one thousand) or (the year one thousand)  
b)  Write 1001 and 1002 and elicit ‘one thousand and one’ and ‘one thousand and two’.  
c)  So, if the year has three zeroes (as in 1000 or 2000) or two zeros in the center (2008 or 2009), we use the word ‘thousand’ in its pronunciation. (the year one thousand or two thousand / two thousand and eight or two thousand and nine) 

d)  Have the class pronounce the years in the sixth row. 
A  STEP 9  SECOND HALF SUMMARY WORKSHEET YEARS  
a)  Have the students pronounce the seven years following the table of six rows.
(1905, 1950, 2000, 1876, 2100, 2032 2001) 

b)  Tell the students to put the years in the appropriate blank next to the right category.  
c)  If the students are at a low level, you can have them check in pairs before going over the answers. You can also ask them to write out the years in the line below.  
d)  Elicit the right answers and ask if they have any questions or doubts. 
The following is a recording of the pronunciation of the years as they are introduced in the above lesson plan. Perhaps some teachers might prefer the option of having a different person say them and that is why it is offered here. The years presented correspond directly to the steps described in this teacher’s guide. 
YEARS WORKSHEET (Steps 3 – 9) APPAUD 17
Students can listen to and repeat the years
YEARS Introducing their pronunciation 
ROW # on HO 3 

Step 3:  50  200  201  606  487  999  1  
Step 4:  1100  1200  1300  2300  3200  4800  2  
Step 5:  1301  1504  1607  1708  1803  1909  3  
Step 6:  1410  1514  1330  1717  1770  1220  4  
Step 7:  2015  2050  2036  1048  1076  2076  5  
Step 8:  3000  3004  3005  1000  1007  2008  6  
Step 9:  1905  1950  2000  1876  2100  2032  2001 
PART B: PRACTICE
B  STEP 1  FIRST CLASS PRACTICE YEARS  
a)  Place students into pairs and give each group one copy of HO 4.  
b)  One student says all the numbers in the first row. Then the second student says all the numbers in the second row and they continue to alternate until all the numbers are spoken, or until you feel they have had enough time.  
c)  Monitor the pairs while they are speaking, helping them when necessary and if a few difficulties arise, make note of them and speak of them when everyone is finished in a brief feedback session. 
YEARS: PRACTICE OF PRONUNCIATION APPAUD 18
Students can listen to and repeat the years
600 1904 1400 1710 2008 2052
1380 1667 801 2009 1500 1608
3200 1470 1794 1805 400 2007
1100 2008 1601 1999 1470 2013
B  STEP 2  FUTURE CLASSES PRACTICE YEARS  
a)  Some groups, especially low to midrange levels, require further practice so you can repeat Step 1 in the next class and occasionally in future classes, just so they don’t forget. Here are some alternative ways of using the same handout: ● You could spread it out over more classes by having the students only do the first 6 rows one class and the second half another day. ● For something different you could suggest that they start from the bottom row and work themselves up. ● Or do an entire column before switching partners. ● Or have one student randomly point to 3 or 4 different years and the other has to pronounce them quickly. 

b)  You could have the students find 3 inventions / discoveries / events (like when X officially became a country) for homework and in the next class put them into small groups. One student quizzes the others on not only who discovered or invented something but also the year. They could make it into a multiple choice for the years, so a greater variety of years could be used, such as a) 1900 b) 1904 c) 1990 d) 2004.  
c)  Do APPAUD 18 (the third recording in this lesson plan) as a dictation. Play the audio and students write down the years.  
d)  Work it into your future classes. It only takes a few seconds, like having someone say the date in a reading text aloud, or you could solicit when something may have happened while discussing some theme or another. 