Appetizer 31 / ORDINAL NUMBERS / Days 1 & 2
GENERAL AIMS
 To introduce the ordinal numbers from 1 to 100 (plus): the symbols, pronunciation and spelling
 To have the students be aware of how ordinal numbers are formed, including the exceptions
 To increase the students’ confidence in their use of ordinals through exploration and practice
STEP SUMMARY
A 
Intro to ordinals 
Numbers from 1 to 100 

B 
Practice 
Spelling & pronunciation 

C 
Future classes 
Some ideas for further practice 
RECOMMENDED LEVELS
Beginner to intermediate
ACTIVITY TIME
2530 minutes
MATERIALS
 Board, screen or flip chart
 Handouts for class:
HO1 worksheet on ordinals
HO2 speaking practice reference
 Audio option APPAUD9 110
 Audio option APPAUD10 119
 Audio option APPAUD11 cardinals + ordinals
 Audio option APPAUD12 midnumbers
 Audio option APPAUD13 tens
 Audio option APPAUD14 teens vs tens
 Audio option APPAUD15 rows on handout
SPECIAL NOTES
– Note 1
– Note 2
Quickpage
Class Plan
PART A: INTRO TO ORDINALS
Go through and modify the steps presented below according to the level you are dealing with. For absolute beginners, they will need more time and practice, so you may want to break up the handout and the presentation over several days, giving them more opportunity to become familiar with the numbers. There are many students at the intermediate levels that are not entirely confident or clear in their use of ordinals, but need only a short time to become reacquainted with some of the details, and to intermittently practice the pronunciation in future classes.
A  STEP 1  ORIENTATION INTRODUCTION ORDINALS  
a)  Ask the students when they would use numbers in the ordinal form.
Elicit: order of people completing a race, birthdays and other dates, anything to indicate order and position 

b)  Elicit what the top 3 positions are. Show with one finger and say, “first” to start them off and try to get them to say, “second” and “third”. (You can draw on the board 3 people standing on boxes like the people do winning the Olympic medals if you like visual prompts.)  
c)  Tell them that this part of the class is dedicated to learning the ordinal forms of numbers. 
A  STEP 2  1 – 19 INTRODUCTION ORDINALS  
a)  Give the students HO 1 (Handout #1) and tell them to look at the first section: ‘1 – 19’.  
b)  If they are a low level, have them work in pairs as they write out the ordinal forms. Intermediate levels could do it quickly individually. If the students are absolute beginners, supply them with the answers as you write them on the board and have them pronounce the words. They copy onto their handouts.  
c)  To make sure everyone has the same (and correct) answers, ask different students to tell you the answers by pronouncing the word and spelling the letters out. You write the answers on the board as they do so. Include the symbols next to the words (2^{nd}, 3^{rd}, 4^{th}, etc.).  
d)  Point out that the ordinal is typically made by adding ‘th’ to the number, but first (not oneth), second (not twoth) and third (not threeth) are exceptions.  
e)  Elicit the other three exceptions.  
●the ‘ve’ in five and twelve changes to ‘f’ with the addition of ‘th’  
fifth (not fiveth) & twelfth (not twelveth)  
●the cardinal 9 changes to ‘ninth’, not ‘nineth’ as you would expect  
‘eighth’ is not really an exception. It has the th at the end. Since the t is already there, you only need the ‘h’  
f)  Have the students repeat the numbers after you. (There are some audio options if you prefer a different voice to yours. Check out the following listenings.) Choose APPAUD 9 if you are only introducing Ordinals 1 – 10 Choose APPAUD 10 for Ordinals 1 – 19 Choose APPAUD 11 to hear the cardinal first (“one”), then its ordinal form (“first”) There is a slight pause between numbers so you could ask your students to say the ordinal form before hearing it. 

g)  Beginners can practice a little before proceeding. Place them into pairs. One student says the cardinal number (ex: “one”) and the other student says the ordinal form (“first”) 
ORDINAL NUMBERS 1 – 10 APPAUD 9
Students can listen to and repeat the ordinals from 1 to 10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ORDINAL NUMBERS 1 – 19 APPAUD 10
Students can listen to and repeat the ordinals from 1 to 19
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
CARDINALS & ORDINALS 1 – 19 APPAUD 11
Students can hear each cardinal number first, then the ordinal form
1 1st 2 2nd 3 3rd 4 4th 5 5th 6 6th 7 7th 8 8th 9 9th 10 10th 11 11th
12 12th 13 13th 14 14th 15 15th 16 16th 17 17th 18 18th 19 19th
A  STEP 3  MIDNUMBERS INTRODUCTION ORDINALS  
a)  Write on the board 21 22 23 … 29 and elicit how to say the ordinal forms.  
b)  Have them look at the example in the next section of the handout and elicit or point out that an ordinal is created only by the adding of the suffix, not by changing any other part. ‘twentyfirst’ is correct but ‘twentiethfirst’, for example, is not. 

c)  Have the students write out the ordinal forms for the five remaining numbers, check the spelling and the pronunciation. (Note: write on the board ‘hyphen’ or ‘dash’ so they can refer to it while saying how to spell the ordinals.  
d)  optional Have the students repeat the numbers in Listening APPAUD 12. 
ORDINAL MIDNUMBERS APPAUD 12
Students can listen to and repeat examples of midnumber ordinals
21 22 23 33 34 35 44 48 51 55 56 67 78 89 92 99
A  STEP 4  TENS INTRODUCTION ORDINALS  
a)  This part needs some special attention, including for higher levels. A number of students have some confusion in the spelling and especially in the pronunciation of these ordinals and with the ‘teens’ which will be explored more in the next step.  
b)  Write on the board ‘20’ and next to it at some distance or below it, ‘20^{th}’. You can also write their spelling using capital letters for the stressed syllable or bigger boxes as shown in this section of the handout.  
c)  Emphasize the stronger stress placed on the first syllable and have the students repeat both the cardinal and ordinal forms with that emphasis.  
d)  Elicit what the rules are for pronouncing and spelling these ordinal numbers.  
SPEAKING  
Pronounce the first syllable strong and the other(s) less so, both for cardinal numbers and ordinal numbers. (The ‘eth’ should never be pronounced as the strong or stressed syllable.)  
SPELLING  
The ‘ty’ changes to ‘ti’ when adding the ‘eth’ to create an ordinal number.  
e)  optional Have the students repeat the numbers in Listening APPAUD 13. 
ORDINAL TENS APPAUD 13
Students can listen to and repeat the ordinals which are multiples of ten
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
A  STEP 5  TEENS vs TENS INTRODUCTION ORDINALS  
a)  Have the students look at the next section and the examples of 13 and 30. Ask them to explain as much as they can about the pronunciation of these examples.  
Encourage them to say or to notice that the teens are extended and there is no extra syllable. The tens are spoken in a more abrupt form (quickly and not extended) and in the ordinal form, there is an extra spoken syllable. 

b)  Have the students repeat after you the pairs on the handout. Another option is Listening APPAUD 14. 
ORDINAL TEENS vs TENS APPAUD 14
Students can listen to and repeat the ordinals from 1 to 19
13, 30 14, 40 15, 50 16, 60 17, 70 18, 80 19, 90
A  STEP 6  FINAL CHECK INTRODUCTION ORDINALS  
a)  Sometimes an unexpected number or detail can throw someone off a bit so this section has a few examples to address those potentially unclear areas.  
b)  Have the students write out the three numbers in ordinal form as is done in the example.
a) 987,305 = nine hundred and eightyseven thousand three hundred and fifth 

c)  Remind the students that the ordinal is exactly the same as a cardinal except for the suffix (usually ‘th’) 
PART B: PRACTICE
B  STEP 1  PRONUNCIATION PRACTICE ORDINALS  
a)  Place students into pairs and refer them to the bottom section of HO #1.  
b)  optional If the students are at a very low level or are having some difficulties with the pronunciation, you could play APPAUD 15 to show them how the numbers could be pronounced. If the students have a fairly good idea and simply need to practice, don’t bother with the listening and have them speak as follows:  
c)  One student says all the numbers in the first row of the box on the left. Then the second student says all the numbers in the second row and they continue to alternate until all the numbers in the box are spoken. They do the same with the second box.  
d)  Monitor the pairs while they are speaking, helping them when necessary and if a few difficulties arise, make note of them and speak of them when everyone is finished in a brief feedback session. 
ORDINAL PRONUNCIATION OF ROWS ON HO #1 APPAUD 15
Students listen to how the ordinals can be spoken
BOX 1 (do first)  BOX 2 (after Box 1)  
31 13 30 5 98 89  63 19 90 91 5 12  
29 5 74 62 14 40  5 22 51 18 80 83  
76 50 15 3 44 5  17 70 77 3 12 23  
12 35 3 16 60 47  21 3 13 30 37 92  
57 17 70 12 3 96  12 61 72 14 40 43  
18 80 55 3 68 12  82 15 50 53 12 61 
B  STEP 2  PRONUNCIATION & SPELLING PRACTICE ORDINALS  
a)  optional If you’d like to have the students practice for a few minutes more, this is something extra you could do. In the same pairs have one student say a cardinal number between one and one hundred and the other student has to say the ordinal form and spell it as well. They take turns until you tell them to stop a short time later. 
PART C: FUTURE CLASSES
C  STEP 1  FURTHER PRACTICE FUTURE CLASSES ORDINALS  
a)  On Handout #2 there are more numbers students can practice in pairs. As before they can take turns saying one row out loud.  
b)  There is a second section where one student can point to a number (for example ‘5’ or ‘3’ on one line and ‘4’ on another to make up the number ‘34’) and the other student says it aloud. Some students like this more because they can invent their own numbers and focus on the more difficult ones if they like.  
c)  Either approach takes only two or three minutes and works well as a warmer or something to do between other activities. You could use it once in a while, just to make sure they maintain the facility of saying ordinals easily. 
C  STEP 2  APPLICATION FUTURE CLASSES ORDINALS  
a)  While less important for higher levels, many students can benefit from reading and hearing the use of ordinals in practice and authentic sources and from having to use them in their speaking and writing. Here are some ideas to reinforce the understanding and use of ordinals:
●Use the Listening APPAUD 15 as a dictation, the 6 rows for BOX 1 for one activity and the 3 rows for BOX 2 for another activity if needed. 